YouTube video about the AT Framework for Localisation

Technical Toolkits

The GALA LT Advisor “is an interactive directory of tools and technologies related to translation and localization”.

Responsive Design Techniques: A resource provided by Mozilla Firefox with links to web pages describing how website can be developed to suit different viewing technologies such as the mobile phone browser as well as the desktop computer browser. 

Cultural Support

Cultural Crossing –  A community built guide to cross-cultural etiquette & understanding with advice on over 200 countries –

The Localisation Research Centre (LRC) Established in 1995 at University College Dublin

Legal Support

UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities signed by 153 countries by 2012 and ratified by 114 countries (including EU and all member states) addresses in many parts eAccessibility, Assistive Technologies and Design for All.

eAccess+ wiki on EU legislation and policy on eAccessibility – “an overview to key policy and legislative resources at European and national level. Area and technology specific legislation and policy issues can be found in these sections on the eAccess+HUB.”

Standards and Guidelines

The GALA Standards Initiative – “promotes the effective use of standards for international and multilingual content, builds awareness of best practices for their implementation, and helps the localization community make open standards work.”

ISO/TC 37/SC 5 Translation, interpreting and related technology – The ISO standards on localization services have yet to be completed but this site provides evidence of the progress.

The W3C Internationalization (I18n) Activity works with W3C working groups and liaises with other organizations to make it possible to use Web technologies with different languages, scripts, and cultures


1.1 MSDN TechNet (2012) A brief and also incomplete history of Windows localization Accessed Aug. 2013

1.2 The Localisation Research Centre (LRC) Established in 1995 at University College Dublin

1.3 Evers, V. (2001) Cross-Cultural Understanding of Graphical Elements on the DirectED Website In Smith, A (Ed) Proceedings of Annual Workshop on Cultural Issues on HCI. 5 December 2001, Putteridge Bury, University of Luton Accessed Aug 2nd, 2013

2a.1 Hofstede, G. (1984). National cultures and corporate cultures. In L.A. Samovar & R.E. Porter (Eds.), Communication Between Cultures. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth p. 51.

2a.2 Kim, M.S. (2007). Commentary: our culture, their culture and beyond: Further thoughts on
ethnocentrism in Hofstede’s discourse,Journal on multicultural discourses, 2(1): 26–31.

2a.3 Inglehart, R.and Welzel, C., “Changing Mass Priorities: The Link Between Modernization and Democracy.” Perspectives on Politics June 2010 (vol 8, No. 2) page 554.

2a.4 Schwartz,S.,(2004) “Mapping and Interpreting Cultural Differences around the World”, in H. Vinken, J. Soeters and P. Ester (Eds.). Comparing Cultures, Dimensions of Culturein a Comparative Perspective (Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.

2a.5 George R., Nesbitt, K. Donovan, M. and Maynard, J., (2012) ‘Evaluating indigenous design features using cultural dimensions’, User Interfaces 2012: Proceedings of the Thirteenth Australasian User Interface Conference (AUIC2012), Melbourne, Vic (2012)

2a.6 Ripat J, and Woodgate R. (2011). The intersection of culture, disability and assistive technology. Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology 6(2):87-96.

2a.7 Boujarwah, F. A., Nazneen, N., Hong,  H., Abowd, G. D. and Arriaga, R. I. (2011)“Towards a Framework to Situate Assistive Technology Design in theContext of Culture”. Presented at the 13th International ACMSIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility, 24-26October, Dundee, Scotland. 

2b.1 Segev, E., Ahituv, N. and Barzilai-Nahon, K. (2007), Mapping Diversities and Tracing Trends of Cultural Homogeneity/Heterogeneity in Cyberspace. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12: 1269–1297 Accessed Aug 2013

2b.2 Kaplan, Robert. B. “Cultural Thought Patterns in Inter-Cultural Education.” Language Learning 17 (1966) 1-20

2b.3 LeDoux, J. (2002). Synaptic self: How our brains become who we are. New York: Penguin.

4.1  Globalization and Localization Association (GALA)

4a.1 Introduction to typing and using RTL (Right to Left) text, and configuring software applications to support RTL

4a.2 “CSS Writing Modes Module Level 3” W3C Working Draft 15 November 2012

4a.3 “Requirements for Japanese Text Layout” W3C Working Group Note 3 April 2012

4a.2 Parette, P., Huer, M.B., & Hourcade, J.J. (2003). Using assistive technology focus groups with families across cultures. Education and training in developmental disabilities, 38(4), 429-440. download PDF

4a.3 Ping, T. P., Sharbini, H., Chan, C. P., & Julaihi, A. A. (2011). Integration of cultural dimensions into software localisation testing of assistive technology for deaf children.In Software Engineering (MySEC), 2011 5th Malaysian Conference in (pp. 136-140).IEEE.

4b.1 Balk EM, Chung M, Hadar N, et al.(2012) Accuracy of Data Extraction of Non-English Language Trials with Google Translate [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2012 Apr.

4b.2 Pereltsvaig, A. (2011) Will “Google Conversation” really converse?

4b.3 Howe, J. (2006). The Rise of Crowdsourcing . Retrieved from Wired:

4b.4 Taghreedat as explained on Wikipedia

4b.5 DePalma, D. (2013) Groups Seeking to Set Translation Standards Seek Input. Common Sense Advisory blog